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Milestone Books

Milestone’s mission is to Help Chemists. To accomplish this goal, Milestone has published many different books, with the aim of producing readable texts for practical analysts and for everyone interested in the evolution of sample preparation strategies.
The Milestone Books are a rich source of information on the variety of sample preparation techniques and can give you a deeper understanding of the overall process.

Getting ready for USP 232, 233 and 2232

Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation and Determination of Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Products
Are you ready for new United States Pharmacopeia 232, 233, and 2232 and also ICH Q3D pharma regulations considering inorganic elemental impurities? We hope yes, but maybe you are not. Frequently pharma laboratories are a world of chromatographs used for organic analysis. Now we are moving for a room with inductively coupled plasmas with optical emission or mass spectrometers (you will get used to new acronyms: ICP OES and ICP-MS). Yes, you will have new analytical instruments in your lab. Together with ICPs, you will also be engaged in sample preparation. You will use new procedures for as complete as possible oxidation of organic compounds and destruction of excipients followed by the determination of elemental constituents liberated in the liquid phase. Microwave-assisted preparation in closed vessels will become an important ally. This is the topic of this book where two analysts talk about this new demand and how to get prepared for it. A Q&A style was adopted for making your reading easier and funnier. The authors hope you enjoy it.
Getting ready for USP 232, 233 and 2232

Think Green

Modern Approaches to Microwave-Assisted Digestion
Think Green is a natural sequel of our former Think Blank book. Think Blank targets the application of analytical procedures compatible with requirements of trace analysis and microwave-assisted sample preparation is a strong ally for reaching these goals. By adopting a Think Blank approach we decrease the volumes and concentrations of reagents for improving blanks and consequently for reaching better limits of detection. Well, if we reduce the amounts of reagents we are by extension going green. In this sense, requirements for greening sample preparation procedures aiming trace analysis are proposed and discussed here. For instance, have you thought about energy needed for promoting and keeping the reaction system heated? What about reaction conditions for attaining efficient digestions? Have you thought about generation of too reactive or dangerous products? How about risks to the analyst and to the environment? Let us think again. In this book modern strategies for developing green digestions are presented and we demonstrated how available instrumentation allows us to reduce the use, to substitute critical reagents, and even how to recycle and reuse reagents. We believe there is a need to keep an eye on blank procedure performance and another eye on green strategies for meeting goals searched for up-to-date and ease-of-use procedures fully applied for trace analysis.
THINK GREEN

Think Blank

Clean Chemistry Tools for Atomic Spectroscopy
Instrumental analysis has continuously evolved in the last decades and determination of trace elements is becoming a routine task in analytical laboratories. Inductively coupled plasmas with argon gas are successfully applied for measurements of emission lines (ICP OES) and isotopes (ICP-MS) for most elements of periodic table. However, a laboratory must have full control of analytical blanks and sample preparation for obtaining accurate results. In this book we discuss how to control contaminations and modern strategies for microwave-assisted sample preparation. Discussions comprehend digestions with diluted acid solutions, microwave-assisted evaporation, microwave vessels with inserts, vapor phase microwave digestion, and single reaction vessel. Modern procedures for sample preparation fully compatible with multielement determinations are presented and experimental data are shown. Instruments and accessories for implementing these strategies are presented. The goal of the authors was to produce a readable text for practical analysts and for everyone interested in the evolution of sample preparation strategies.
Think Blank

Microwave Green Extraction

Modernizing Trace Organic Analysis
The role of the analytical chemist has not changed since the inception of the discipline. However, the questions for which society wants answers have become more challenging. Instrumental analysis has continually evolved to keep up with the analysis demands, but sample preparation has failed to keep up with the evolutions of modern trace organic analysis instrumentation. In this book we discuss the importance of sample preparation for trace organic analysis. Part I focuses on the fundamental theory of extracting an analyte from a sample matrix, modern extraction techniques, and post extraction processing. Part II reviews modern instrumental analysis techniques as they relate to the sample preparation process and Part III discusses how advances in microwave technology bring sample preparation to the same standards as instrumental techniques. The goal of the authors was to produce a text that helps today’s trace organic analyst understand and overcome the difficulties of sample preparation by learning how to THINK GREEN.
Microwave Green Extraction

Microwave Chemistry

Giancarlo Cravotto, Diego Carnaroglio (Eds.)
Microwave Chemistry describes the state-of-the-art of microwave (MW) technology and its applications in chemistry.
Released by the publishing house De Gruyter, the book is a clear proof that microwave-enhanced chemistry is today influencing several areas of science, from sample preparation for elemental and organic determination to genomics or proteomics field, from drug discovery to catalysis, from synthesis of nanoparticles to inorganic compounds, from nano-materials to polymer chemistry, and so on. Although not entirely related to Milestone products, MICROWAVE CHEMISTRY testifies our know-how and commitment in this field of science.
The list of contributors is indeed impressive, as it includes leading scientists in microwave chemistry from all over the world (Prof. Satoshi Horikoshi from Japan, Prof. Antonio de la Hoz from Spain, Prof. Erico Flores from Brazil, just to mention a few).
Microwave Chemistry