• Matteo Written by Matteo Volpi, Application Specialist | 22 July 2022

Microwave assisted extraction of dioxins from fly ash samples


The incineration of municipal solid or medical waste is prone to high dioxins emissions. Typically, the dioxins produced from incinerators are captured by the air pollution control division (APCD) and remain in the fly ash. The analysis of dioxins in fly ash can be very challenging and many methods have been developed over time to obtain good recoveries from this difficult matrix.
Dioxins and furans are toxic chemicals that persist in the environment and accumulate in the food chain.
Their persistence and the fact that they accumulate in the food chain, notably in animal fat, are the main cause of safety concerns. Since their toxicity and persistence, dioxins are listed in the POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) covered by the Stockholm Convention. Longer-term exposure to these substances has been shown to cause a range of adverse effects on the nervous, immune and endocrine systems, impair reproductive function and they may also cause cancer.

Guidelines for microwave extraction

Ethos X


Extraction of pollutants from solid matrices is often performed with techniques that limit the productivity and have high running costs. The ETHOS™ X with the fastEX-24eT rotor allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples in 40 minutes with minimal solvent usage. By using large volume disposable glass vials, the fastEX-24eT rotor simplifies handling and allows to achieve lower detection limits. Typical applications of microwave-assisted solvent extraction include chlorinated pesticides, semi-volatile organics, PAHs, PCBs, chlorinated herbicides, phenols, organophosphorus pesticides, dioxins and furans.
  • High throughput. 24 samples in 40 minutes.
  • Superior return of investment. Substantial reduction in solvent.
  • Simple handling. Disposable glass vials.
  • Consintency & Reproducibility. Consistent and reproducible results.
  • Safety & Reliability.