Microwave assisted extraction of PBDEs in environmental samples

Microwave assisted extraction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Esthers (pbdes) in environmental samples
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants ubiquitously present in the environment and likewise in biota, food and feed. Microwave assisted solvent extraction, compliant with several official methods, offers an efficient and competitive solution for sample preparation. Milestone’s ETHOS X with fastEX-24eT rotor was used in this study to prove its efficacy in the extraction of PBDEs from environmental matrices.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants, bio-accumulated and currently ubiquitous in the environment.
They are applied as additives in some plastics, foams, electronics, and fabrics, originating from three commercial mixtures: penta-, octa-, and deca- BDE. Due to their persistence and resistance to degradation, PBDEs remains in the environment for a long time, as occurred with the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In their lifecycle they contaminate food and dust increasing the risk for human health. They have high toxicity, even at low level, and they are mainly accumulated in liver thyroid hormone homeostasis, reproductive and nervous system.
Together with eight other new persistent organic pollutants, tetra-BDE and penta-BDE were listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2009.
Their quantification is generally performed in soil samples and microwave, through the US EPA 3546 official method, is a well-established sample preparation technique that enables extractions with reduced solvent volume and time.
US EPA 3546 outlines the procedure for extracting water insoluble or slightly water-soluble organic compounds from soils, clays, sediments, sludges, and solid wastes.
This application report represents a guideline for the extraction of PBDEs from environmental samples using the official methods EPA 3546.